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Physics and Society

New submissions

[ total of 13 entries: 1-13 ]
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New submissions for Tue, 20 Mar 18

[1]  arXiv:1803.06375 [pdf, other]
Title: Mobile phone records to feed activity-based travel demand models: MATSim for studying a cordon toll policy in Barcelona
Comments: 16 pages, 16 figures
Subjects: Physics and Society (physics.soc-ph); Social and Information Networks (cs.SI)

Activity-based models appeared as an answer to the limitations of the traditional trip-based and tour-based four-stage models. The fundamental assumption of activity-based models is that travel demand is originated from people performing their daily activities. This is why they include a consistent representation of time, of the persons and households, time-dependent routing, and microsimulation of travel demand and traffic. In spite of their potential to simulate traffic demand management policies, their practical application is still limited. One of the main reasons is that these models require a huge amount of very detailed input data hard to get with surveys. However, the pervasive use of mobile devices has brought a valuable new source of data. The work presented here has a twofold objective: first, to demonstrate the capability of mobile phone records to feed activity-based transport models, and, second, to assert the advantages of using activity-based models to estimate the effects of traffic demand management policies. Activity diaries for the metropolitan area of Barcelona are reconstructed from mobile phone records. This information is then employed as input for building a transport MATSim model of the city. The model calibration and validation process proves the quality of the activity diaries obtained. The possible impacts of a cordon toll policy applied to two different areas of the city and at different times of the day is then studied. Our results show the way in which the modal share is modified in each of the considered scenario. The possibility of evaluating the effects of the policy at both aggregated and traveller level, together with the ability of the model to capture policy impacts beyond the cordon toll area confirm the advantages of activity-based models for the evaluation of traffic demand management policies.

[2]  arXiv:1803.06588 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Cultural Evolution of Categorization
Comments: 17 pages
Subjects: Physics and Society (physics.soc-ph)

Categorization is a fundamental function of minds, with wide ranging implications for the rest of the cognitive system. In humans, categories are shared and communicated between minds, thus requiring explanations at the population level. In this paper, we discuss the current state of research on the cultural evolution of categorization. We begin by delineating key properties of categories in need of evolutionary explanation. We then review computational modeling and laboratory studies of category evolution, including their major insights and limitations. Finally, we discuss remaining challenges for understanding the cultural evolution of categorization.

[3]  arXiv:1803.06591 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Recognizing number of communities and detecting community structures in complex networks
Subjects: Physics and Society (physics.soc-ph); Social and Information Networks (cs.SI)

Recognizing number of communities and detecting community structures of complex network are discussed in this paper. As a visual and feasible algorithm, block model has been successfully applied to detect community structures in complex network. In order to measure the quality of the block model, we first define an objective function WQ value. For obtaining block model B of a network, GSA algorithm is applied to optimize WQ with the help of random keys. After executing processes AO (Adding Ones) and RO (Removing Ones) on block model B, the number of communities of a network can be recognized distinctly. Furthermore, based on the advantage of block model that its sort order of nodes is in correspondence with sort order of communities, so a new fuzzy boundary algorithm for detecting community structures is proposed and successfully applied to some representative networks. Finally, experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed algorithm.

[4]  arXiv:1803.06861 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Analytical and numerical study of the non-linear noisy voter model on complex networks
Subjects: Physics and Society (physics.soc-ph); Statistical Mechanics (cond-mat.stat-mech)

We study the noisy voter model using a specific non-linear dependence of the rates that takes into account collective interaction between individuals. The resulting model is solved exactly under the all-to-all coupling configuration and approximately in some random networks environments. In the all-to-all setup we find that the non-linear interactions induce "bona fide" phase transitions that, contrarily to the linear version of the model, survive in the thermodynamic limit. The main effect of the complex network is to shift the transition lines and modify the finite-size dependence, a modification that can be captured with the introduction of an effective system size that decreases with the degree heterogeneity of the network. A non-trivial finite-size dependence of the moments of the probability distribution is derived from our treatment, nevertheless mean-field exponents are obtained in the thermodynamic limit. These theoretical predictions are well confirmed by numerical simulations of the stochastic process.

[5]  arXiv:1803.06916 [pdf]
Title: Simulating the future urban growth in Xiongan New Area: a upcoming big city in China
Authors: Xun Liang
Subjects: Physics and Society (physics.soc-ph); Artificial Intelligence (cs.AI); Computers and Society (cs.CY)

China made the announement to create the Xiongan New Area in Hebei in April 1,2017. Thus a new magacity about 110km south west of Beijing will emerge. Xiongan New Area is of great practial significant and historical significant for transferring Beijing's non-capital function. Simulating the urban dynamics in Xiongan New Area can help planners to decide where to build the new urban and further manage the future urban growth. However, only a little research focus on the future urban development in Xiongan New Area. In addition, previous models are unable to simulate the urban dynamics in Xiongan New Area. Because there are no original high density urbna for these models to learn the transition rules.In this study, we proposed a C-FLUS model to solve such problems. This framework was implemented by coupling a modified Cellular automata(CA). An elaborately designed random planted seeds machanism based on local maximums is addressed in the CA model to better simulate the occurrence of the new urban. Through an analysis of the current driving forces, the C-FLUS can detect the potential start zone and simulate the urban development under different scenarios in Xiongan New Area. Our study shows that the new urban is most likely to occur in northwest of Xiongxian, and it will rapidly extend to Rongcheng and Anxin until almost cover the northern part of Xiongan New Area. Moreover, the method can help planners to evaluate the impact of urban expansion in Xiongan New Area.

[6]  arXiv:1803.06935 [pdf]
Title: Mathematical Analysis of Anthropogenic Signatures: The Great Deceleration
Authors: Ron W. Nielsen
Comments: 30 pages, 31 figures, 2 tables, 8991 words
Subjects: Physics and Society (physics.soc-ph); Populations and Evolution (q-bio.PE)

Distributions of anthropogenic signatures (impacts and activities) are mathematically analysed. The aim is to understand the Anthropocene and to see whether anthropogenic signatures could be used to determine its beginning. A total of 23 signatures were analysed and results are presented in 31 diagrams. Some of these signatures contain undistinguishable natural component but most of them are of purely anthropogenic origin. Great care was taken to identify abrupt accelerations, which could be used to determine the beginning of the Anthropocene. Results of the analysis can be summarised in three conclusions. 1. Anthropogenic signatures cannot be used to determine the beginning of the Anthropocene. 2. There was no abrupt Great Acceleration around 1950 or around any other time. 3. Anthropogenic signatures are characterised by the Great Deceleration in the second half of the 20th century. The Great Deceleration indicates a gradual progress towards a sustainable future.

[7]  arXiv:1803.07000 [pdf, other]
Title: Generalized Rich-Club Ordering in Networks
Authors: Matteo Cinelli
Comments: 10 pages, 5 figures
Subjects: Physics and Society (physics.soc-ph); Social and Information Networks (cs.SI)

Rich-club ordering refers to tendency of nodes with a high degree to be more interconnected than expected. In this paper we consider the concept of rich-club ordering when generalized to structural measures different from the node degree and to non-structural measures (i.e. to node metadata). The differences in considering rich-club ordering (RCO) with respect to both structural and non-structural measures is then discussed in terms of employed coefficients and of appropriate null models (link rewiring vs metadata reshuffling). Once defined a framework for the evaluation of generalized rich-club ordering (GRCO), we investigate such a phenomenon in real networks provided with node metadata. By considering different notions of node richness we compare structural and non-structural rich-club ordering, observing how external information about the network nodes is able to validate the presence of elites in networked systems.

Cross-lists for Tue, 20 Mar 18

[8]  arXiv:1803.06915 (cross-list from math.CO) [pdf, other]
Title: Exploiting symmetry in network analysis
Comments: Main Text (7 pages) plus Supplementary Information (24 pages)
Subjects: Combinatorics (math.CO); Social and Information Networks (cs.SI); Data Analysis, Statistics and Probability (physics.data-an); Physics and Society (physics.soc-ph)

Virtually all network analyses involve structural measures or metrics between pairs of vertices, or of the vertices themselves. The large amount of redundancy present in real-world networks is inherited by such measures, and this has practical consequences which have not yet been explored in full generality, nor systematically exploited by network practitioners. Here we develop a complete framework to study and quantify the effect of redundancy on arbitrary network measures, and explain how to exploit redundancy in practice, achieving, for instance, remarkable lossless compression and computational reduction ratios in several real-world networks against some popular measures.

Replacements for Tue, 20 Mar 18

[9]  arXiv:1704.05276 (replaced) [pdf, other]
Title: Best reply structure and equilibrium convergence in generic games
Comments: Main paper + Supplemental Information
Subjects: Physics and Society (physics.soc-ph); Adaptation and Self-Organizing Systems (nlin.AO); Economics (q-fin.EC)
[10]  arXiv:1711.05317 (replaced) [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Correlated network of networks enhances robustness against catastrophic failures
Comments: 5 figures
Subjects: Physics and Society (physics.soc-ph); Statistical Mechanics (cond-mat.stat-mech)
[11]  arXiv:1711.09504 (replaced) [pdf, other]
Title: A Typology of Social Capital and Associated Network Measures
Subjects: Physics and Society (physics.soc-ph); Social and Information Networks (cs.SI)
[12]  arXiv:1801.09492 (replaced) [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Heterogeneity effects in power-grid network models
Comments: 12 pages, 10 Figures, results recalculated following K/N -> K/N_i coupling renormalization
Subjects: Physics and Society (physics.soc-ph); Disordered Systems and Neural Networks (cond-mat.dis-nn); Statistical Mechanics (cond-mat.stat-mech)
[13]  arXiv:1612.09282 (replaced) [pdf, other]
Title: Interface networks in models of competing alliances
Comments: 7 pages, 8 figures
Subjects: Pattern Formation and Solitons (nlin.PS); Physics and Society (physics.soc-ph)
[ total of 13 entries: 1-13 ]
[ showing up to 2000 entries per page: fewer | more ]

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